E(2)-like Little Group for Massless Particles

For massless particles, Wigner observed the symmetry group is isomorphic to the two-dimensional Euclidean group or E(2), consisting of one rotational and two translational degrees of freedom. It is easy to associate the rotational degree to the helicity. What about the translational degree of freedom? This question was not completely addressed until 1990, 51 years after 1939.

Neutrino Polarization